When Andrew Jackson became president of the United States in 1829, his government took a hard line. Jackson abandoned the policy of his predecessors of treating different Indian groups as separate nations.
Instead, he aggressively pursued plans against all Indian tribes which claimed constitutional sovereignty and independence from state laws, and which were based east of the Mississippi River.
They were to be removed to reservations in Indian Territory west of the Mississippi (now Oklahoma), where their laws could be sovereign without any state interference.
At Jackson’s request, the United States Congress opened a debate on an Indian Removal Bill. After fierce disagreements the Senate passed the measure 28–19, the House 102–97. Jackson signed the legislation into law May 30, 1830.
In 1830, the majority of the “Five Civilized Tribes”:
All were living east of the Mississippi as they had for thousands of years. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 implemented the U.S. government policy towards the Indian populations, which called for moving Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. While it did not authorize the forced removal of the indigenous tribes, it authorized the President to negotiate land exchange treaties with tribes located in lands of the United States.
Additionally, there were other American Indian Tribes in Alabama:
Muskogee Tribe including the Abihka, Coosa and Tallapoosa Tribes
Atchinalgi : Creek Indian Village
ALABAMA INDIAN VILLAGES, TOWNS AND SETTLEMENTS INDEX PAGE
On the east bank of the Tallapoosa River, in Randolph County, Alabama, near the mouth of Cedar Creek was another Upper Creek village Atchinalgi. The community was destroyed on November 13, 1813 by General James White and his troops from Tennessee. Wikipedia contributors, “James White (general),” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=James_White_(general)&oldid=827827679 (accessed March 20, 2018). Following the Fort Mims massacre of August 1813, Andrew Jackson and John Coffee led the Tennessee militia into northern Alabama in October of that year to engage a contingent of hostile “Red Stick” Creeks. The militiamen scored victories at the Battle of Tallushatchee (November 3) and at the Battle of Talladega (November 9).
Abikakutchee – Creek Indian Town
Alabama Indian Villages, Towns and Settlements Index Page
The Indian village of Abikakutchee, also spelled “Abicouchie,” and “Abikudshi” was located, according to W. Stuart Harris’s Dead Towns of Alabama, “Situated on a mile-wide plain, Abikudshi was approximately a mile from where the Sylacauga Highway crosses over Tallassehatchee Creek, on the right bank of the creek, 5 miles east of the Coosa River, in Talladega County, Alabama.”
Abikakutchee was another Upper Creek Indian town located in Talladega County. The site was first recorded on maps in 1733 and a census in 1760 listed 130 Indian warriors living there. Those living there were later reported to have a few cattle, hogs and horses and to assist the white people who lived among them. The site of the town is a mile from where the Sylacauga Highway goes over Tallassehatchee Creek.
Abihka was an Upper Creek Indian town east of the Coosa River and south of Tallassehatchee Creek. The first record of the town is found on Delisle’s map of 1704, where they are “les Abelkas,” and are noted on the east side of the Coosa River, apparently just above the influx of the Pakantalahassi.— Winsor. Belen’s map of 1733, also places the “Abeccas” on the east side of the Coosa, but at some distance from it. The name “Abihka” (meaning unknown), is sometimes used to refer to all the Upper Creek peoples. The Abihka were the remnants of the 16th century “Chiefdom of Coosa.”
The Battle of Tallasseehatchee was a battle fought during the War of 1812 and Creek War on November 3, 1813, in Alabama between Red Stick Creeks Native Americans and United States dragoons. A cavalry force commanded by Brigadier General John Coffee was able to defeat the Creek warriors. After the massacre at Fort Mims, General Andrew Jackson assembled an army of 2,500 Tennessee militia. Jackson began marching into Mississippi Territory to combat the Red Stick Creeks. Jackson’s troops began to construct Fort Strother along the Coosa River.
Elmore County is a county of the State of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 79,303. Its county seat is Wetumpka. Its name is in honor of General John A. Elmore. Elmore County was created by the Alabama legislature on 1866 Feb.
Today, Madison is one of the fastest growing cities in the southeastern United States, with one of the highest per capita incomes and a school system that is recognized for scholastic excellence at the local, state, and national level.
The Mayor and the City Council continue to invest in economic development, public facilities, and infrastructure.
Madison has been listed as a US News & World Report “Top 10 Places to Grow Up”, a CNN Money “Top 100 Best Places to Live”, one of Family Circle’s “10 Best Towns for Family”, and was recognized as Google’s “2013 Digital Capital of Alabama”.
Indian Tribes of Alabama
The Creek Nation was divided among the group known as the Upper Creeks, who occupied territory along the Coosa, Alabama, and Tallapoosa rivers in central Alabama, and the Lower Creeks, who occupied the areas along the lower Chattahoochee, Ocmulgee, and Flint rivers in southwestern Georgia. Tribes Recognized by the State of Alabama
Poarch Band of Creek Indians
Stephanie A. Bryan, Tribal Chair
5811 Jack Springs Road
Atmore, AL 36502
(Note: Also recognized by the Federal Government)
Echota Cherokee Tribe Of Alabama
Stanley Trimm, Chief
410 Main Street West
Glencoe, AL 35905
Cherokee Tribe Of Northeast Alabama
Stan Long, Chief
113 Parker Drive
Huntsville, AL 35811
Ma-Chis Lower Creek Indian Tribe of Alabama
James Wright, Chief
64 Private Road 1312
Elba, AL 36323
Fax: (334) 897-2950
Southeastern Mvskoke Nation
Ronnie F. Williams, Chief
208 Dale Circle
Midland City, AL 36350
Cher-O-Creek Intra Tribal Indians
Violet Hamilton, Chief
1315 Northfield Circle
Dothan, AL 36303
MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians
Lebaron Byrd, Chief
1080 Red Fox Road
Mount Vernon, AL 36560
Piqua Shawnee Tribe
Gary Hunt, Chief
4001 Evans Lane
Oxford, AL 36203
(256) 239-1523 or (256) 835-2110
Judy Dixon, Chief
1531 Blount Ave or P.O. Box 754
Guntersville, AL 35976
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