- 1 Native American Tribes of Alabama
- 1.1 Native American History in Alabama:
- 1.2 Five Civilized Tribes
- 1.3 Other Native American Tribes In Alabama
- 1.3.1 Alabama Tribe
- 1.3.2 Biloxi Tribe
- 1.3.3 Koasati Tribe
- 1.3.4 Mobile Tribe
- 1.3.5 Muskogee Tribe including the Abihka, Coosa and Tallapoosa Tribes
- 1.3.6 Abihka
- 1.3.7 Apalachee
- 1.3.8 Apalachicola
- 1.3.9 Atasi
- 1.3.10 Chatot
- 1.3.11 Eufaula
- 1.3.12 Fus-hatchee
- 1.3.13 Hilibi
- 1.3.14 Hitchiti
- 1.3.15 Ispokogi
- 1.3.16 Kan-hatki
- 1.3.17 Kealedji
- 1.3.18 Koasati
- 1.3.19 Kolomi
- 1.3.20 Mobile
- 1.3.21 Mukalsa
- 1.3.22 Muskogee
- 1.3.23 Napochi
- 1.3.24 Natchez
- 1.3.25 Okchai
- 1.3.26 Okmulgee
- 1.3.27 Osochi
- 1.3.28 Pakana
- 1.3.29 Pawokti
- 1.3.30 Pilthlako
- 1.3.31 Sawokli
- 1.3.32 Shawnee
- 1.3.33 Taensa
- 1.3.34 Tohome
- 1.3.35 Tukabahchee
- 1.3.36 Tuskegee
- 1.3.37 Wakokai
- 1.3.38 Wiwohka
- 1.3.39 Yamasee
- 1.3.40 Yuchi
- 1.4 Native American Bands Of Alabama:
- 1.5 Tribes Recognized by the State of Alabama
- 1.5.1 Poarch Band of Creek Indians
- 1.5.2 Echota Cherokee Tribe Of Alabama
- 1.5.3 Cherokee Tribe Of Northeast Alabama
- 1.5.4 Ma-Chis Lower Creek Indian Tribe of Alabama
- 1.5.5 Southeastern Mvskoke Nation
- 1.5.6 Cher-O-Creek Intra Tribal Indians
- 1.5.7 MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians
- 1.5.8 Piqua Shawnee Tribe
- 1.5.9 United Cherokee
Native American Tribes of Alabama
The following list of American Indians who have lived in Alabama has been compiled from Hodge’s Handbook of American Indians, Swanton’s The Indian Tribes of North America and research of family and public documents. Some tribes listed may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.
Native American research is extremely difficult and time consuming. Many records do not exist and careless record keeping is evident in many documents. This is not to place blame on others because there were many factors which may have made the process of record keeping near impossible. The most obvious problem is the lack of a written language for most tribes and of course the difficulty of spoken language translations.
Native American History in Alabama:
When Andrew Jackson became president of the United States in 1829, his government took a hard line. Jackson abandoned the policy of his predecessors of treating different Indian groups as separate nations. Instead, he aggressively pursued plans against all Indian tribes which claimed constitutional sovereignty and independence from state laws, and which were based east of the Mississippi River. They were to be removed to reservations in Indian Territory west of the Mississippi (now Oklahoma), where their laws could be sovereign without any state interference.
At Jackson’s request, the United States Congress opened a debate on an Indian Removal Bill. After fierce disagreements the Senate passed the measure 28–19, the House 102–97. Jackson signed the legislation into law May 30, 1830.
Five Civilized Tribes
In 1830, the majority of the “Five Civilized Tribes” were:
The Chickasaw had a few settlements in northwestern Alabama, part of which State was within their hunting territories. At one time they also had a town called Ooe-asa (Wǐ-aca) among the Upper Creeks.
This tribe hunted over and occupied, at least temporarily, parts of southwestern Alabama beyond the Tombigbee.
When Alabama was first established as part of the Mississippi Territory in the early nineteenth century, the vast majority of the land belonged to the Creek Indian Confederacy, and most of the Native American towns in Alabama were inhabited by the Creeks. The Creek Nation was divided among the group known as the Upper Creeks, who occupied territory along the Coosa, Alabama, and Tallapoosa rivers in central Alabama, and the Lower Creeks, who occupied the areas along the lower Chattahoochee, Ocmulgee, and Flint rivers in southwestern Georgia.
All were living east of the Mississippi as they had for thousands of years. In the latter part of the eighteenth century some Cherokee worked their way down the Tennessee River as far as Muscle Shoals, constituting the Chickamauga band. They had settlements at Turkeytown on the Coosa, Willstown on Wills Creek, and Coldwater near Tuscumbia, occupied jointly with the Creeks and destroyed by the Whites in 1787. All of their Alabama territory was surrendered in treaties made between 1807 and 1835.
The Indian Removal Act of 1830 implemented the U.S. government policy towards the Indian populations, which called for moving Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. While it did not authorize the forced removal of the indigenous tribes, it authorized the President to negotiate land exchange treaties with tribes located in lands of the United States.
Other Native American Tribes In Alabama
Additionally, there were other American Indian Tribes in Alabama:
Muskogee Tribe including the Abihka, Coosa and Tallapoosa Tribes
Very early this tribe lived on the Apalachicola and Chattahoochee Rivers, partly in Alabama. Sometime after 1715 they settled in Russell County, on the Chattahoochee River where they occupied at least two different sites before removing with the rest of the Creeks to the other side of the Mississippi.
At least three successive places were occupied by the Atasi on Tallapoosa River. The first was some miles above the sharp bend in the river at Tukabahchee, where Bartram found them in 1777-78. 4The second was five miles below Tukabahchee on the south side of the river, 5 and the third a few miles higher on the north side near the mouth of Calebee Creek. The name appears in the census lists of 1738, 1750, 1760, and 1761. 6 On the last mentioned date James McQueen and T. Ferryman were the officially recognized traders. 7
|4.||↩||Bartram, Travels, p. 448 et seq.|
|5.||↩||Ga. Hist. Soc. Colls., IX, pp. 40, 46. ” On the opposite bank [from Mr. Bailey’s house] formerly stood the old town Ohassee [Ottassee], a beautiful rich level plane surrounded with hills, to the north, it was formerly a canebrake, the river, makes a curve round it to the south, so that a small fence on the hill side across would enclose it.”- p. 40.|
|6, 7.||↩||MSS., Aver Lib.; Miss Prov. Arch., I, p. 95; Ga. Col. Docs., VIII, p. 523.|
This tribe settled near Mobile after having been driven from Florida and moved to Louisiana about the same time as the Apalachee.
A division of the Muskogee. Fushatchee were a Muscogee sub-tribe. They were located in Alabama and Florida.
The Fushatchee may have come out of three different Muscogee tribes: Kanhatki, Kolomi, and the Atasi. They were first noted as existing in 1733. Traders tracked them as being in the region from then until 1797. Some traders called them the “Coosahatchies of Swan”. The village is described by trader Hawkins as being on flat land, on the south side of the Tallapoosa River. The tribe grew corn on each side of the river. A ditch was built for fortification. Additional, older settlements were found down the river.
After the Red Stick War, the Fushatchee relocated to northern Florida. They disappeared in census data after 1832. Eventually, the tribe merged with the Kanhatki. They relocated together further west, after the Seminole Wars, and eventually into the Seminole Nation where they settled together. The tribe would be represented by the Seminole. Their village was called Liwahali.
A division of the Muskogee.
A division of the Muskogee.
The Muscogee, also known as the Creek and the Creek Confederacy, are a closely related group of native North American tribes or Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. They are originally from a single confederated native land that now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida.
One section of the Natchez Indians settled among the the Abihka Creeks near Coosa River after 1731 and went to Oklahoma a century later with the rest of the Creeks.
A division of the Muskogee.
A Creek tribe and town of the Hitchiti connection.
This tribe moved from Florida to the neighborhood of Mobile along with the Alabama Indians and afterward established a town on the upper course of Alabama River. Still later they were absorbed into the Alabama division of the Creek Confederacy.
There was a band of Yamasee on Mobile Bay shortly after 1715, at the mouth of Deer River, and such a band is entered on maps as late as 1744. It was possibly this same band which appears among the Upper Creeks during the same century and in particular is entered upon the Mitchell map of 1755. Later they seem to have moved across to Chattahoochee River and later to west Florida, where in 1823 they constituted a Seminole town.
Native American Bands Of Alabama:
Ma-Chis Lower Creek
Mowa Band Choctaw
Star Clan of Muskogee Creek
United Cherokee (Ani-Yum-Wiya Nation).
Tribes Recognized by the State of Alabama
Poarch Band of Creek Indians
Stephanie A. Bryan, Tribal Chair
5811 Jack Springs Road
Atmore, AL 36502
(Note: Also recognized by the Federal Government)
Echota Cherokee Tribe Of Alabama
Stanley Trimm, Chief
410 Main Street West
Glencoe, AL 35905
Cherokee Tribe Of Northeast Alabama
Stan Long, Chief
113 Parker Drive
Huntsville, AL 35811
Ma-Chis Lower Creek Indian Tribe of Alabama
James Wright, Chief
64 Private Road 1312
Elba, AL 36323
Fax: (334) 897-2950
Southeastern Mvskoke Nation
Ronnie F. Williams, Chief
208 Dale Circle
Midland City, AL 36350
Cher-O-Creek Intra Tribal Indians
Violet Hamilton, Chief
1315 Northfield Circle
Dothan, AL 36303
MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians
Lebaron Byrd, Chief
1080 Red Fox Road
Mount Vernon, AL 36560
Piqua Shawnee Tribe
Gary Hunt, Chief
4001 Evans Lane
Oxford, AL 36203
(256) 239-1523 or (256) 835-2110
Judy Dixon, Chief
1531 Blount Ave or P.O. Box 754
Guntersville, AL 35976
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