Barbour County Alabama

Barbour County Alabama

Barbour County Alabama was established on December 18, 1832, from former Creek Indian homelands and a portion of Pike County. Between the years of 1763 and 1783 the area which is now Barbour County was part of the colony of British West Florida. After 1783 the region fell under the jurisdiction of the newly created United States of America.

Barbour County is in the southeastern part of the state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 27,457. Its county seat is Clayton.

Barbour County Alabama History

Source: Alabama As It Is – by Benjamin F. Riley – 1887

The county of Barbour was formed in 1832 and named for Governor James Barbour, of Virginia. It has long been one of the leading counties of the State. It has been noted, not only for the thrift and prosperity of its citizens, but for their refinement aud intelligence, as well. The county has furnished a number of the most distinguished men of the State. No other county leads Barbour in its progress in agriculture and the manufactures. It has an area of 860 square miles.

Population in 1870, 29,309; population in 1880,33,979. White, 13,091 ; colored, 20,888.

Tilled Land: 197,455 acres.—Area planted in cotton, 100,442 acres; in corn, 61,822 acres; in oats, 10,264 acres; in wheat, 131 acres; in rye, 112 acres; in rice, 35 acres; in tobacco, 22 acres; in sugar-cane, 647 acres ; in sweet potatoes, 1,274 acres.

Cotton Production : 26,063 bales.

It will be seen by these figures that Barbour is emphatically an agricultural county. For the pursuit of agriculture, it is most admirably fitted by Nature. It has generally a slightly undulating surface, with hills along the northern end. The lower portions of the county are generally level. Barbour creek, a large stream which flows nearly through the heart of the county, in a southeasterly direction, divides it into two sections. North of this stream are the most fertile lands. Amid the Cowikces (a name given a group of streams in that section) we find a portion of the famous Black Belt. Here have been for many years, and still are, the extensive plantations which have given Barbour such a reputation abroad as a superb farming section. Almost without exception, the lands in this region possess superior fertility. A large proportion of the colored population is found in this region, whither they have located as the tillers of the soil. They live directly upon these productive lands, while the white settlements are upon the knolls and more elevated portions. For social refinement and elevation, this part of the county can not be surpassed. The prolific lands of this region have an admixture of lime, and away from the streams are reddish or light colored. Those bordering the several forks or creeks which water this section are much more sandy, but highly productive.

Looking southward from Barbour creek, the lands are freer from hills and much more sandy than those lying beyond the stream and in the north. In this part of the county (the southern) the surface sand has a deep clay subsoil, and is susceptible of a high degree of fertilization. It is described as being highly favorable to small model farms, as different crops can be rapidly planted and gathered in rotation.

A high ridge follows the windings of Pea river, which is not so fertile as the neighboring regions, but which is thickly timbered with valuable oak, hickory, and walnut. The productions of Barbour county are cotton, corn, oats, peas, millet, sorghum, potatoes (sweet and Irish), and sugar-cane. The last-named product is so easy of cultivation, and under favorable circumstances is so productive, that it is annually assuming greater importance.

All the vegetables grown in the Temperate Zone flourish here without limit.

Fruits are easily raised and are winning more attention year by year. Pears, peaches, plums, grapes, figs, and melons of every variety are the fruits which are generally grown. Captain R. F. Kolb, who resides near the city of Hufaula, derives immense profit from his watermelon farm. During the past year he planted 200 acres in watermelons alone. He has an immense nursery of fruit trees, and has an orchard with 2,500 LeConte pear trees. He also produces large quantities of seeds for Northern dealers.  Grasses and clovers grow beautifully in the county, both in their native wildness and when cultivated. These, together with the wild cane, which grows along the streams, keep the stock roaming at large, in excellent condition almost throughout the year.

The woods of the county are mainly stocked with such timbers as oak, hickory, poplar, long-leaf pine, walnut, and persimmon.

The county is drained in the north by the several forks of Cowikee creek, along the eastern slopes by the Chattahoochee, the central and southern parts by the headwaters of the Choctawhatchee river, and the western part by Pea river. This affords an idea of the superior watering facilities of the county.

From the hills in the southwest have been gathered specimens of iron ore. Lime rocks prevail in abundance in different portions of Barbour, while specimens of kaolin have been secured. In the town of Louisville is a bed of green marl about twelve or eighteen feet below the surface and in vast quantities. Repeated experiments by gardeners prove its value.

In the southern portion of the county four miles above the line of Dale, is a great natural curiosity in the form of a magnificent spring, the dimensions of which are 40×80 feet. Its waters are of a bluish cast and so transparent that the light glows through them. The eye of a fish is distinctly seen in their shining depths. This was once a point of popular resort, but since the destruction of the spacious hotel it has been abandoned as such. The waters of this wonderful spring are supposed to possess wonderful curative powers. There issues directly from it a large, bold stream.

Eufaula, a city of 6,000 inhabitants, Clayton, the county-seat, and a point of interest having quite an educational spirit, and Louisville, with a population of several hundred, and Batesville are the important centers of the county. Among these Louisville may be mentioned as one of the oldest towns in this section of Alabama, and has long been noted as possessing a thrifty and intelligent population. Eufaula is one of the principal cities of the State. By reason of its location as a commercial center, it has long been regarded a point of great importance. This estimate of the city is further enhanced by the projected railway from this point to Florida. It crowns a lofty bluff on the western bank of the Chattahoochee river, 180 feet high, overlooking that stream for many miles, in both directions, and commanding a view of beautiful landscapes for a great distance beyond. It is noted for its health, superior society, enterprising business men, schools, and churches. Its compresses, machine shops, factories, foundries, flouring and corn mills, weaving mill, and presses attest its importance as an enterprising center. It has good hotels and many handsome private residences. Its church architecture will compare favorably with that of any city in the South. It has a female college and superior male schools.

Clayton, with a population of 600, has a female college and first-class male institutions. Educational advantages are found in every portion of the county. Churches exist also in every section.

Transportation is secured through the Montgomery and Eufaula railroad, the Eufaula and Clayton railroad, and the Chattahoochee river.

Lands may be had, by those wishing to settle in Barbour, at prices ranging from $2.50 to $20 per acre. No people would hail more readily the influx of a thrifty, industrious population than those of Barbour county.

There are 5,520 acres of government land still untaken in the county.

Source: Northern Alabama – Historical and Biographical by Smith & De Land, Birmingham, Ala 1888

Population: White, 13,091; colored, 20,888. Area, 860 square miles. Woodland, all. Oak, hickory and long-leaf pine, 610 square miles; Blue marsh land, 250 square miles.

Acres – In cotton (approximately), 100,000; in corn, 61,800; in oats, 10,300; in wheat, 150; in rye, 100; in rice, 50; in tobacco, 25; in sugar-cane, 650; in sweet potatoes, 1,300. Approximate number of bales of cotton, in round numbers, 26, 100.

County Seat – Clayton; population, 1,200; located seventy-five miles southeast of Montgomery, and at the terminus of the Eufaula & Clayton Railroad.

Newspapers published at County Seat – Courier, Democrat; at Eufaula, Mail, Times, News – all Democratic.

Post offices in the County – Batesville. Belcher, Bush, Clayton, Clio, Coleridge, Cotton Hill, Cowikee. Cox’s Mill, Elamville, Eufaula, Harris, Hawkinsville, Howe, Lodi, Louisville, McInness, Mount Andrew, New Topia, Oateston, Pea River, Reeder’s Mill. Star Hill. Tub, White Oak Springs, White Pond.

The county was organized in 1832, and named in honor of Gov. James Barbour, of Virginia. It lies in the eastern portion of the State, and is separated from Georgia by the Chattahoochee River, which forms its entire eastern boundary. Barbour ranks as one of the leading counties in the State.

A line drawn east and west through Barbour County, near the center, will divide it into two parts which are quite dissimilar. The soils on the north of this line are more or less calcareous, those on the south, sandy. The northern half has a substratum of marl and limestone of the upper cretaceous formation, which, acting upon the soil, gives rise to some of the best and safest cotton lauds in the State. This portion of the county is drained by the three forks of Cowikee Creek, and is known throughout the county as the Cowikee lands.

The soil is moderately stiff, calcareous clay, with patches of what is known as hog-wallow, which are seldom more than an acre or two in extent. In the immediate vicinity of the streams the soil is much more sandy, but highly productive. The general appearance of these lands is that of a gently undulating, occasionally hilly region, somewhat resembling the prairies of the Rotten Limestone country, hut with reddish or light-colored soils. This region, though fertile, is malarious, and is inhabited by comparatively few white families. The negroes, however, appear to endure it very well. There is a peculiar mixture of trees characterizing these lands, viz. : hickory, white and Spanish oaks, sweet and sour gums, and long-leaf pine. The latter appears to be out of place with such surroundings.

The Chattahoochee River forms the eastern boundary of the county, and the bottom lands of this stream are from one to three miles wide, and very productive, Next to these are the second bottoms or hummocks, or pine Hats, always safe and easy to cultivate. Bordering upon these are the foot-hills of the pine uplands.

Although the larger part of the surface of this county is occupied by brown loams, with a growth of oak, hickory, and pine, yet the characteristic agricultural features of Barbour depend upon the blue marls of the Cowikee and other drainage areas of the northern half of the county. A large proportion (more than half) of the cotton crop is produced in the northeastern part of the county, where these marls give character to the soils. There is, perhaps, no part of the State which ranks higher in the production of cotton than the blue marl lands of adjacent parts of Russell, Barbour and Bullock Counties, whose prevailing soils are light, sandy loams, easily worked, possessing a comparatively high percent- age of lime, by which they are rendered extraordinarily thrifty.

From the hills in the southwest have been gathered specimens of iron ore. Lime rock prevails in abundance in different portions of Barbour, while specimens of kaolin have been secured. In the town of Louisville is a bed of green marl about twelve or eighteen feet below the surface, and in vast quantities. Repeated experiments by gardeners prove its value.

In the southern portion of the county, four miles above the line of Dale, is a great natural curiosity in the form of a magnificent spring, the dimensions of which are 40×80 feet. Its waters are of a bluish cast and so transparent that the light glows through them. The eye of a fish is distinctly seen in their shining depths. This was once a point of popular resort, but since the destruction of the spacious hotel it has been abandoned as such. The waters of this spring are supposed to possess wonderful curative powers. There issues directly from it a large, bold stream.

Clayton is the county seat, and is a pleasant little village. It is the seat of several excellent institutions of learning.

Eufaula, on the Chattahoochee is the most important place in Eastern Alabama. It is a city of between six and seven thousand people, and has a promise of an extensive growth in the near future. Eufaula’s commercial importance will be greatly increased by the completion of several railroads which are projected. Batesville and Louisville are the other towns of the county.

Barbour County Historical Destinations

Fendall Hall


Shorter Mansion


Barbour County Alabama Cities

Clio Alabama

Clio is located in southwest Barbour County in the southeast corner of Alabama. Originally known as Adkinson’s Head, Clio got its first post office in 1860. By 1869, the town had been given its current name, which is the Latin spelling of Kleio, the Greek word for “to make famous.” By 1889, the Central of Georgia Railway Company had constructed and begun operating a line through Clio, which led to rapid growth of the town. Clio incorporated in 1890.

Eufaula Alabama

Eufaula is the largest city in Barbour County. As of the 2010 census the city’s population was 13,137. The town is home to the second largest historic district in the state, with more than 700 historic and architecturally significant structures. At one time situated on a bluff overlooking the Chattahoochee River, Eufaula now lies near the 45,000-acre Lake Eufaula, also known as the Walter F. George Reservoir, created by the construction of the Walter F. George Dam in 1963. Originally settled in 1816, Eufaula is now the most populous city in Barbour County.

History of Eufaula

Barbour County Alabama Towns

Bakerhill Alabama

Bakerhill or Baker Hill is a town in Barbour County, near Eufaula. When first settled, the town was located approximately a mile southeast of its present site and was known as Chestnuttville. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the town had a population of 279. Although it existed as an unincorporated village since before 1860, the town was officially incorporated in 1997.

Bakerhill Alabama History

When first settled, the town was located approximately a mile southeast of its present site and was known as Chestnuttville, after local merchant Alpheus R. Chesnutt. The town was renamed Bakerhill in the mid-nineteenth century after the Baker family, who relocated to the area from South Carolina. Early industries in Bakerhill included turpentine production and bauxite mining for the aluminum-manufacturing industry. Bakerhill is written alternately as either one or two words in many early documents, but the one-word form is used on official documents and maps. The town incorporated in January 1997, soon after a poultry-processing plant opened nearby.

Source: Encyclopedia of Alabama

Bakerhill Alabama Events and Places of Interest
The McGee Home (ca. 1873) is listed on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage. Bakerhill is located near Lake Eufaula, Blue Springs State Park, and the White Oak Creek Recreation Area.

Source: Encyclopedia of Alabama

Blue Springs Alabama

Blue Springs is a town in Barbour County, Alabama, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 96. The town is the home of Blue Springs State Park. Blue Springs State Park is a 103-acre property along the West Fork Choctawhatchee River near the center of town. It features a spring pool, campground and picnicking.
Blue Reindeer Creek is a designated site of historical interest.

Clayton Alabama

Clayton is a town in and the county seat of Barbour County. The population was 3,008 at the 2010 census, up from 1,475 in 2000.

Clayton has been the county seat since 1834, two years after the creation of Barbour County. Clayton is located geographically in the center of the county. The town was located at the headwaters of the Pea and Choctawhatchee rivers on the historic road from Hobdy’s Bridge over the Pea River to Eufaula on the Chattahoochee River.

Clayton has a rich heritage with four properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Clayton is also known for its Whiskey Bottle Tombstone.

During its early history, Clayton was home to several dry goods and mercantile stores, but it never surpassed the commercial importance of neighboring Eufaula.

Though largely untouched during the Civil War, the town was visited by a Union raiding party in April 1865 after the war had ended. The Union soldiers reportedly attempted to steal fresh horses, and several men in the town attempted to stop them. The skirmish ended with the deaths of one soldier and one townsperson, but no punishments were enacted because the soldiers had been acting against orders by engaging the townspeople.

Louisville Alabama

Louisville is a town in Barbour County. Originally named “Lewisville” and still pronounced as such. At the 2010 census the population was 519. Louisville is 10 miles southwest of Clayton, the county seat, and 6 miles northeast of Clio.

Barbour County Alabama Unincorporated Communities

Batesville Alabama

Batesville is an unincorporated community in Barbour County. Fort Browder, a small wooden fort, was built near Batesville to use as protection during the Creek War of 1836. Company D of the 15th Regiment Alabama Infantry was organized here and known as the “Fort Browder Roughs.”

Elamville Alabama

Elamville is an unincorporated community in the southwest corner of Barbour County. In the early to mid-20th century Elamville was known for the “Old Oak Tree” in the middle of town where the elderly men of the community played dominoes on the state- provided concrete picnic table.

Spring Hill Alabama

Spring Hill is an unincorporated community in Barbour County. Spring Hill is located at the junction of County Routes 49 and 89, 17.2 miles (27.7 km) northwest of Eufaula.

Teals Crossroads Alabama

Teals Crossroads is a populated place in Barbour County. It is near the towns of Clio, Alabama and Blue Springs, Alabama.

Barbour County Alabama Historical Sites

Alexanders Landing 31.7790527344, -85.1404876709
Alexanders Mill 31.7751636505, -85.1521530151
Andrews Store 31.7315540314, -85.4777145386
Barbour County Farm 31.8968276978, -85.435218811
Barkers Store 31.7834949493, -85.6354980469
Bickleys Mill 31.8959922791, -85.5046615601
Boyds Store 31.7459983826, -85.4129943848
Brocks Mill 31.6654434204, -85.5979995728
Browns Mill 31.7134990692, -85.3871612549
Campbell Gin 31.7112751007, -85.5388259888
Cannon Store 31.7237758636, -85.5266036987
Clarks Store 31.8546047211, -85.5721664429
Cox Mill 31.7609977722, -85.4396591187
Days Mill 31.6296100616, -85.7304992676
Dickle Mill 31.8946037292, -85.5171661377
Easterlings Store 31.6612758636, -85.5716094971
Eufaula Landing 31.8932151794, -85.1307678223
Farmers Gin 31.7823867798, -85.3399353027
Floyds Mill 31.8309955597, -85.4660491943
Fuqua Gin 31.6876659393, -85.4577178955
Gilfords Store 31.6571102142, -85.5899429321
Grice Store 31.6996097565, -85.4921646118
Haglers Mill 31.7618312836, -85.5104980469
Helms Store 31.6946105957, -85.5227203369
Houstons Store 31.8168296814, -85.3316040039
Huttos Store 31.7854423523, -85.4035491943
Jernigans Mill 31.8140525818, -85.2438201904
Johnsons Store 31.8737716675, -85.5491104126
Johnstons Store 31.7909965515, -85.3588256836
Lewis Store 31.7326641083, -85.6610565186
McCarrols Mill 31.7751636505, -85.2049331665
Mercers Store 31.7812747955, -85.4141082764
Meyers Store 31.8709926605, -85.6577224731
Nix Mill 31.8834934235, -85.4718856812
Pea River Battleground 31.8001613617, -85.6596679688
Phillips Store 31.6284999847, -85.5654983521
Reynolds Store 32.1195983887, -85.3541107178
Richards Mill 31.8021068573, -85.3802185059
Roaches Mills 32.0682106018, -85.1115951538
Robertson Mill 31.8543281555, -85.5213317871
Sanders Store 31.9029369354, -85.560218811
Scroggins Store Josie
Solomons Mill Louisville
Spires Store Mount Andrew
Stewarts Gin Baker Hill
Swanners Gin Clio
Taylors Store Comer
Ventress Mill Clayton North
Walkers Gin Lawrenceville
Williams Mills Twin Springs
Willis Store Mount Andrew
Wilson Gin Texasville
Wilsons Mill Baker Hill
Woods Mill Fort Gaines NW
Wool Ridge Landing Twin Springs
Zorns Mill

Barbour County Alabama Ghost Towns

Cotton Hill
31°50’05.0″N 85°16’49.9″W
31.834733, -85.280533

32°02’04.0″N 85°13’40.0″W

32.034450, -85.227783



31.758300, -85.469500

Solomons Mill

31.817883, -85.621600

Solomons Mill (historical) is a locale in Barbour County. Also known as Kings Old Mills, Solomons’ Mill and Solomons Mills.

White Oak

31°54’01.4″N 85°20’20.8″W

31.900383, -85.339100

Also known as White Oak Springs. About five miles north of Gaino Alabama.

Barbour County Alabama Indian Tribes

The Creek Indians were removed to territory west of the Mississippi River. The fertile land was developed by southern migrants as large cotton plantations dependent on slave labor. Due to the number of slaves, the population was soon majority black, a proportion that continued for decades.

Barbour County Alabama Points Of Interest

The Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge in Barbour County is one of the largest preserved natural areas in the state. With more than 700 structures listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the Seth Lore and Irwinton Historic District in Eufaula is currently the largest in East Alabama and the second-largest in the state. One of the county’s most unique tourist attractions is Governor’s Park, which overlooks Lake Eufaula.

Other points of interest in Barbour County include Fairview Cemetery, which includes an old Jewish section, the graves of European settlers and Confederate soldiers, and burial grounds for enslaved people.

Barbour County Alabama Bodies of Water

Blue Springs State Park

Choctawhatchee River

Walter F. George Lake (Lake Eufaula)