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Jefferson county is located in the north-central portion of the state, on the southernmost edge of the Appalachian Mountains. It is in the center of the (former) iron, coal, and limestone mining belt of the Southern United States.
Jefferson County is the most populous county in the state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, its population was 658,466. Its county seat is Birmingham, which is the most populous city in the state.