Alabama Indian Villages, Towns and Settlements
Table of Contents
When Alabama was first established as part of the Mississippi Territory in the early nineteenth century, the vast majority of the land belonged to the American Indian Creek Indian Confederacy, and most of the Native American towns and villages in Alabama were inhabited by the Creeks.
Indian towns and settlement patterns were recorded in the accounts of travelers who visited them.
Much of the information here has been gleaned from:
(1)Aboriginal Towns In Alabama, Handbook of the Alabama Anthropological Society, 1920, and
(2)Swanton, John R., Early History of the Creek Indians and Their Neighbors. Pub. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 73. Washington, 1922.
The Creek Nation was divided among the group known as the Upper Creeks, who occupied territory along the Coosa, Alabama, and Tallapoosa rivers in central Alabama, and the Lower Creeks, who occupied the areas along the lower Chattahoochee, Ocmulgee, and Flint rivers in southwestern Georgia.
Histopolis – Bollaborative Genealogy & History
Geoff Mangum’s Native America Project
Vicki Roema, Footsteps of the Cherokees (2007)
W. Stuart Harris, Dead Towns of Alabama (1977)
Aboriginal Towns in Alabama, Handbook of the Alabama Anthropological Society, 1920
Swanton, John R., Early History of the Creek Indians and Their Neighbors. Pub. Smithosian Institution, Bureau of American Enthnology, Bulletin 73. Washington, 1922.
Abihka was an Upper Creek Indian town east of the Coosa River and south of Tallassehatchee Creek. The first record of the town is found on Delisle’s map of 1704, where they are “les Abelkas,” and are noted on the east side of the Coosa River, apparently just above the influx of the Pakantalahassi.— Winsor.
Abikakutchee was another Upper Creek Indian town located in Talladega County. The site was first recorded on maps in 1733 and a census in 1760 listed 130 Indian warriors living there. Those living there were later reported to have a few cattle, hogs and horses and to assist the white people who lived among them. The site of the town is a mile from where the Sylacauga Highway goes over Tallassehatchee Creek. It was located on the right bank of the creek.
An Upper Creek town on the right bank of Natche (now Tallahatchi) Creek, five miles east of Coosa River, on a small plain. Settled from Abika, and by some Indians from Natche, q. v. Bartram (1775) states, that they spoke a dialect of Chicasa; which can be true of a part of the inhabitants only. A spacious cave exists in the neighborhood.
A group of towns near the site of Montgomery. See Migration Legend, I, pp. 85-89.
Alkohatchi was an upper Creek town on Tallapoosa river upon the Alko hatchi, or “Alko stream” which joins Talla poosa from the west, four miles above Okfuski.
Amakalli, Lower Creek town, planted by Chiaha Indians on a creek of that name which is the main water-course of Kitchofuni creek, a northern affluent of Flint river, Georgia. Inhabited by sixty menin1799. The name isnot Creek;it is Cheroki and seems identical with Amacalola creek, a northern affluent of Etowa river, Dawson county, Georgia. The derivation given for it is: ama water, kalola sliding, tumbling.
Located along Anatitchapko Creek about 10 miles north of Pikneyville, Alabama in Clay County, Alabama. Pinckneyville is in the south west part of Clay County near the Tallapoosa County line on County Road 18.
Anati tchapko or “Long Swamp,” a Hillabi village, ten miles above that town, on a northern tributary of Hillabi creek. A battle occurred there during the Creek or Red Stick war, January 24th, 1814. Usually written Enotochopko. The Creek term anati means a brushy, swampy place, where persons can secrete themselves.
A Lower Creek town on the west bank of Chatahuchi river, 1.5 miles below Chiaha.
An Upper Creek town, called Oselanopy in the Census list of 1832. It probably lay on Yellow Leaf creek, which joins Coosa River from the west about five miles below Talladega creek. From it sprang Green-leaf Town in the Indian Territory, since láni means yellow and green at the same time. Green is now more frequently expressed by páhi-láni.
Atagi, a Tawasee Indian town, was located on the Alabama River at the mouth of Autauga Creek, in the southeastern corner of Autauga County. The first county seat of Autauga County was established at Washington, Alabama on the site of the town of Atagi, in 1819.
Atagi is an Alabama tribal name, referring to both a traditional Alabama Indian village and the band of people who lived there. The village name comes from the Alabama word Aatooka, which means “ballcourt.” Other variants of the same name include Autauga and Atagi.
An Upper Creek town on the east side of Tallapoosa River, below and adjoining Kalibi hátchi Creek.
On the east bank of the Tallapoosa River, in Randolph County, Alabama, near the mouth of Cedar Creek was another Upper Creek village Atchinalgi. The community was destroyed on November 13, 1813 by General James White and his troops from Tennessee.
Near present-day community of Sprott, Alabama. Large town covering a square mile.
Near mouth of Autauga Creek, Autauga County, on north bank.
Chananagi (Chunnenuggee), Lower Creek Town
(“Long ridge”). A Creek town which Brannon places “in Bullock County, just south of the Central of Georgia Railroad, near Suspension, Alabama. “14 Woodward represents the people of this town as being allied with the Tukabahchee when the Creek-American war broke out. There is a modern village of this name east of Montgomery, in Russell County, Alabama.
Coweta is one of the four mother towns of the Muscogee people along with Kasihta, Abihka, and Tuckabutche. The town of Coweta was the capital of the Creek Confederacy between 1717 and 1755.
Coweta was located in an area now in the modern state of Alabama. It was a central trading city of the Lower Creeks. Members of the tribal town were also known as Caouitas or Caoüita.
The Cherokee language name for all the Lower Creeks is Anikhawitha.
The exact location of Coweta is still in dispute. For the full story, Richard Thornton has a superb article on the matter. You can read it here.
On Alabama River, three mile above Montgomery.
a Lower Creek town on the eastern bank of Chatahuchi River, two and a half miles below Kawíta Talahássi; Kasíhta once claimed the lands above the falls of the Chatahuchi river on its eastern bank. In this town and tribe our migration legend has taken its origin. Its branch settlements spread out on the right side of the river, the number of the warriors of the town and branches being estimated at 180 in 1799; it was considered the largest among the Lower Creeks. The natives were friendly to the whites and fond of visiting them; the old chiefs were orderly men, desirous and active in restraining the young “braves” from the licentiousness which they had contracted through their intercourse with the scum of the white colonists. Hawkins makes some strictures at their incompetency for farming; “they do not know the season for planting, or, if they do, they never avail themselves of what they know, as they always plant one month too late” (p. 59). A large conical mound is described by him as standing on the Kasíhta fields, forty-five yards in diameter at its base, and flat on the top. Below the town was the “old Cussetuh town,” on a high flat, and afterwards “a Chicasaw town ” occupied this site (p. 58). A branch village of Kasíhta is Apata-i, q. v. The name Kasíhta, Kasíχta, is popularly explained as “coming from the sun” (ha si) and being identical with hasíhta. The Creeks infer, from the parallel Creek form hasóti, “sunshine,” that Kasíhta really meant “light,” or “bright splendor of the sun;” anciently, this term was used for the sun him self, “as the old people say.” The inhabitants of the town believed that they came from the sun. Cf. Yuchi. A place Cusseta is now in Chatahuchi County, Georgia, 32° 20 Lat.
West of confluence of the Alabama River and Cahawba River. On north side of Alabama River.
A port and neighboring town, on the Gulf coast, either on Mobile or Pensacola Bay, in which the DeSoto fleet wintered, 1540. Thought to be the present Mobile Bay. (P. A. B.)